1. What is Homoeopathy?
Homoeopathy is a specialized system of medicine for treating Peoples and animals discovered by Dr. Sammuel Hahnemann on the basis of simple Principle similia similibus and curenter.
The word Homoeopathy is derived from the Greek word Homoeos meaning like or similar and pathos meaning suffering.
Dr. Sammuel Hahnemann discovers it in 1790 in Germany.
According to Haffen & Julian,
1. Homoeopathy is a medicine based exclusively on the principal of similarity Or analogy.
2. Homoeopathy consist of giving a sick person a minimum dose of the medication that produces the respective symptoms in a healthy person.
3. Homoeopathy is a medicine based on the similia principle. This formulates a Parallelism between toxicological and pharmacological forces of a medication on A healthy sensitive person and its therapeutic power on a sick person, who shows a similar set of symptoms.
Homoeopathy is based on different principles or doctrines.
i. Law of Similia
ii. Law of Simplex
iii. Law of Minimum dose
iv. Doctrine of vital force
v. Doctrine of drug proving
vi. Doctrine of drug dynamisation
vii. Doctrine of chronic diseases
2. What is Homoeopathic Materia Medica?
Homoeopathic Materia Medica is a study of drugs , medicinal materials for the Cure of the sick.
It is a book which contains the collected facts from different experimentation's, clinical experiences , including their pharmacodynamic effects and method of application and doses
It is a book containing the systematic record of the drugs, which are proved on healthy human beings of both sexes, and of different ages.
3. How do homoeopathic remedies work?
When a medicine is given, it produces either mechanical or chemical action on the person according to the nature of the drug. When the primary action is over, the vital force gives a reaction to the primary action & this is called as secondary action. For the drug action directs contact of living cell by any means is necessary, the receptor site of the cell is located in the plasma membrane. The receptor site absorbs the molecules of the drug substance, it takes up rhythm from some constituent of the drug by influencing the enzyme kinetics or genetic code.
Principle of Drug Action - 1) When the repair processes of nature is going on, the drug stimulate a function or depress hyperexcitability of a cell. 2) Drugs may alternate or kill the organism & effect the process of cure. 3) Pharmacological agents, who are obtained from organs of animal, may replace the secretion absent or present in insufficient quantity in man.
4. What is the routes of drug administration?
In general there are various methods of introducing drugs into the body. Hahnemann instructed that the tongue, mouth and stomach are the most effective routes of administration of remedies. Apart from the oral administration, olfaction or rubbing on the skin (epidermotactic) may also be used as routes of administration. Remedies should be placed on the bare, cleaned tongue. No toothpaste should be used before the administration of the remedy. Sublingually, or placed on the mucus membrane of the lower lip are also effective routes to administer.
The principal methods are -
1) Oral Method - By mouth, which may be (a) Aqueous solution, (b) Syrups, (c) Elixirs, (d) Emulsions, (e) Mixtures, (f) Powders, (g) Capsules, (h) Pills.
2) Parenteral - This includes all forms of injections; (a) Subcutaneous, (b) Intramuscular, (c) Intravenous, (d) Intrathecal, (e) Bone marrow injection, (f) Intraperitoneal.
3) Mucosal Absorption Method - (a) Rectal absorption - generally in the form of supposition, (b) Olfaction Method - Nasal septum either putting powders in the nasal septum or by inhalation.
4) Skin Absorption method - It is done in the form of liniments, lotion, and ointments.
As Homoeopathy bears a speciality in the field of medicine, its mode of administration also bears a speciality.
5. How to select the potency of Homoeopathic medicines?
Choosing the potency & repetition of dose depends upon many factors like susceptibility of patient, nature of disease, age of patient, sex of patient, nature of medicine, duration of disease etc.
The Homoeopathic potencies are grossly divided into 2 types.
1) Lower Potencies :-
The lower potencies are usually used -
a) If there are gross pathological irreversible changes.
b) When disease is incurable & only for palliating the symptoms,low potencies are used.
c) Usually given to females.
d) When there are structural changes.
e) If diseases are very chronic where vital force is so exhausted that the reaction of vital force to the stimulus is sluggish.
f) When there is paucity of symptoms as in one-sided diseases.
g) If we want to prescribe Sarcodes.
h) Usually for the old persons.
2) Higher Potencies :-
They are usually used -
a) More useful for mental disease.
b) If one has to prescribe anti miasmatic medicines for miasmatic disease or when there are no characteristic signs & symptoms. These antimiasmatic medicines are always given in high potencies.
c) When there is exactly matching of the symptoms of medicines & patient (exact similimum is available)
d) Usually advocated for males.
e) If disease is acute in nature & vital force shows good reaction to the stimulus.
f) If we want to prescribe the Nosodes, they should always be given in higher potencies.
g) It is usually given to young adults or children.
6. When the homoeopathic drug should be repeated?
1) Perceptible and continued progress of improvement contra indicates repetition.
2) Repeat the dose only when improvement ceases.
3) Repetition may be continued till either recovery ensues or different groups of symptoms arise and thus demand different remedy.
4) In chronic diseases, medicine may be repeated at intervals of fourteen, twelve, ten, eight or seven days. In chronic diseases resembling cases of acute disease - should be repeated at still shorter intervals. In acute diseases at very much shorter period - every twenty-four, twelve, eight, four hours.In a very most acute-every hour, even at every five miutes.
7. What is mean by vital force?
Vital force is a power of healing found in every living being, it is also called vismediatrix in nature. It is this super-sensual thing that maintains the body in living condition.This makes the all the difference between living and dead. It was realised by Dr. Hahnemann who used this word in the organon up to five editions but in 6th edition, he used the word dynamis for vital force is meant for life force where as dynamis pertains to life process meant for healing purpose.